2013/09/19

五輪をイメージさせる言葉の規制について

オリンピック表現規制について

・「おめでとう東京」と書いても知的財産権侵害ではない~弁護士からJOCへの反対意見 http://www.bengo4.com/topics/777/


プラクティス
・IOCは開催都市と契約を結んでいる.(e.g.HOST CITY CONTRACT FOR THE GAMES OF THE XXX OLYMPIAD IN 2012  http://www.gamesmonitor.org.uk/node/553
・該契約の内容は予め提示されており,開催都市はそれを確認した上で開催地として立候補している.
・契約内容に,オリンピック表示に関連した表示につき,IOCが満足する程度の保護を定めた法律が制定され保護されなければならないことが,記載されている.
http://www.olympic.org/host-city-elections/documents-reports-studies-publications
・オリンピック表現規制の主体は,IOCにあり,現行法にはない.
・開催都市として立候補し,開催都市となった以上,オリンピック表現規制の責任は,東京都にある.
・現行の知的財産関連法では,IOCが満足する程度の保護がなされていない可能性が高い(と無茶に仮定,実際は不正競争防止法17条で十分かもしれないが)

・今後,次が予想される
1 オリンピック表現規制の立法化.
2 契約不履行による開催辞退.
3 契約不履行だが無事開催.

・オリンピック誘致に総理が出席している以上,1の対応が最もありえるだろう.
内閣提出法律案でオリンピック表現規制特別法が制定されるだろう.
ただし,この特別法を制定するとなると,オリンピックのスポンサーのみに対し,本来それらが持たない権利を独占させることになるので,その根拠を作り出すにはかなり議論があるだろう.
・期間制限すれば,独占も認められる,とできるだろう.ただ,日本は時限立法対応できるのだろうか?
・最も良い方法は,IOCを説得して,3の対応をさせることであろう.
しかし,内容を認めた上で契約したわけであるので,後付で文句言うのはどうかと.解釈で対応できるだろうか.
・この契約の準拠法はどの国の法だっけ?・・・スイス法か.大陸法下の契約ならば,解釈対応可能か.
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%B9%E3%82%A4%E3%82%B9%E6%B0%91%E6%B3%95%E5%85%B8

(追記:ブラジルワールドカップにおける特別法
http://www.planalto.gov.br/CCIVIL_03/_Ato2011-2014/2012/Lei/L12663.htm
http://www.v-brazil.com/world-cup/law/full-text.php

・まあ,結局アンブッシュマーケティングとの戦いになる.
がんばれアンブッシュ(おい)


・HOST CITY CONTRACT FOR THE GAMES OF THE XXX OLYMPIAD IN 2012  http://www.gamesmonitor.org.uk/node/553
「VII. Intellectual Property-related Matters
40. Exclusive
Rights of IOC in
the Games;
Conveyance of
Rights to the
City upon
Conditions
a) The City, the NOC and the OCOG acknowledge, without limiting any provision of
the Olympic Charter, that the Games are the exclusive property of the IOC, that
the IOC has secured certain international trademark rights regarding the “CITY +
2012” identification of the Games, either combined or not with the Olympic
Symbol (i.e. the five rings), and that the IOC owns all rights and data relating to
their organization, exploitation, broadcasting, recording, representation,
marketing, reproduction, access and dissemination by any means or mechanism
whatsoever, whether now existing or developed in the future.
b) The IOC may assign, license or otherwise convey all or any part of such rights, or the benefit the IOC derives from such rights, to the OCOG or to other parties at
its own discretion, including, without limitation, those rights relating to or
deriving from the official emblem, mascot(s), posters and any artistic,
orthographic or visual representations or designations, including, but not limited
to, any and all copyright, design and trademark rights relating to the Games.
Such conveyance of rights or benefits shall be conditional upon the IOC being
satisfied as to the protection of the IOC's proprietary rights with respect to the
various objects and marks.
c) The City, the NOC and the OCOG further agree and undertake that if, for any
reason whatsoever, any rights relating directly or indirectly to the Games are held
by the City, the NOC, the OCOG or by any other third party as a consequence of
any form of agreement with the City, the NOC or the OCOG, all such rights shall
be held by such bodies in a fiduciary capacity for the benefit of the IOC and,
under all circumstances, shall be assigned to the IOC by such bodies, at their
cost, in form and substance satisfactory to the IOC upon the request of the IOC.
d) Actions in the Host Country with respect to unauthorized use of the properties
relating to the Games, including trademark rights, shall be taken by the OCOG, at
its expense, in consultation with the IOC. Actions outside the Host Country, with
respect to the unauthorized use of the said properties, shall be taken by the IOC,
in consultation with the OCOG, at the OCOG’s expense.
41. Legal
Protection of
Olympic
Symbol,
Emblems and
Mascot(s)
a) The City, the NOC and/or the OCOG have ensured, or shall ensure, not later than 31st December 2005, that the Olympic Symbol, the terms “Olympic” and
“Olympiad” and the Olympic motto are protected in the name of the IOC and/or
that they have obtained, from the Government and/or the competent national
authorities of the Host Country, adequate and continuing legal protection to the
satisfaction of the IOC and in the name of the IOC. The NOC confirms that, in
accordance with the Olympic Charter, should such domestic legal protection exist
or be expressed in the name of or for the benefit of the NOC, the NOC shall only
exercise such rights in accordance with the instructions received from the IOC.
The City, the NOC and/or the OCOG shall ensure that the above-noted legal
protection provides for a procedure which allows intellectual property disputes,
concerning the above-noted properties, to be solved in a timely manner, in
particular before and during the actual period of the Games.
b) The City, the NOC and/or the OCOG have ensured or shall ensure that, not later
than one year from the date of the formation of the OCOG, the NOC emblem is
properly protected in the Host Country in the name of the NOC. Should there
remain any doubts as to the protection of the said emblem, the City, the NOC
and the OCOG shall obtain, from the Government and/or the competent national
authorities of the Host Country, adequate and continuing legal protection to the
satisfaction of the IOC and in the name of the NOC.
c) The City, the NOC and/or the OCOG shall ensure that, not later than one year
from the date of the formation of the OCOG, the OCOG emblem, the OCOG
mascot(s) and the “CITY + 2012” identification of the Games are properly
protected, in consultation with the IOC, in the Host Country in the name of the
OCOG and/or the NOC and that all relevant documents and information have
been made available to the IOC for the purpose of the international trademark
protection of the foregoing in the IOC’s name. Concerning the adoption and
protection of the OCOG emblem, the IOC will provide the OCOG with further
instructions/guidelines how this matter should be handled. Should there remain
any doubts as to the protection of the foregoing in the Host Country, the City,
the NOC and/or the OCOG shall obtain, from the Government and/or the
competent national authorities, adequate and continuing legal protection to the
satisfaction of the IOC.
d) As for the international protection of the OCOG emblem, the OCOG mascot(s) and the “CITY + 2012” identification of the Games, the IOC shall carry out such
protection, in the name of the IOC, in consultation with the OCOG. The OCOG
shall provide the IOC with all relevant documentation in a timely manner in order
that the IOC can effectively carry out such protection. All costs incurred by the
IOC in connection with the international trademark protection of such emblem,
mascot(s) and the “CITY + 2012” identification of the Games shall be borne by the
OCOG.
e) The City, the NOC and the OCOG shall ensure that any and all trademark
applications filed or registered in the territory of the Host Country, as well as any
and all copyrights and designs (whether filed or not by the OCOG in the Host
Country) with respect to its emblem and mascot(s) and the “CITY + 2012”
identification of the Games shall be assigned to the IOC or, if the IOC so
requests, to the NOC free of charge effective not later than 31st December 2012.
The said assignments, in form and substance satisfactory to the IOC, shall be
executed upon the request of the IOC.
f) Paragraphs (b) and (d) of Section 40 above shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the
subject matter of this Section 41.
42. Proprietary
Rights in
Artistic,
Intellectual or
Other Works
a) All proprietary rights, including copyright, in all graphic, visual, artistic and
intellectual works orr creations developed by or on behalf of or for the use of the
City's Candidature Committee, the City, the NOC or the OCOG with respect to the
Games shall vest in and remain in the full ownership of the IOC, including,
without limitation, the following matters:
i) emblem of City’s Candidature Committee;
ii) emblems and mascots (including those referred to in Paragraph (c) of
Section 41 above), including all graphic and three-dimensional
representations thereof;
iii) pictogrammes;
iv) poster designs;
v) Olympic torch designs and any moulds relating thereto;
vi) badges and any moulds relating thereto;
vii) Olympic winners and commemorative medals designs and any moulds
relating thereto;
viii) diplomas;
ix) Official publications;
x) musical works as referred to in the Olympic Charter;
xi) other graphic works;
xii) multi-media works; and
xiii) medical-related data.
(hereinafter cumulatively referred to as the “IOC IPR”)
The design of any such IOC IPR shall be subject to the prior written approval of the
IOC.
b) All the moulds of the Olympic and commemorative medals and torch designs,
and all undistributed medals, diplomas and torches shall be delivered and
assigned, without reservation or encumbrance, by the OCOG to the IOC, free of
charge, upon the conclusion of the Games. No reproductions or replicas of such
medals, diplomas, torches or moulds shall be made or authorized or permitted
by the OCOG.
c) The City, the NOC and the OCOG shall ensure that any and all trademark
applications filed or registered as well as any and all copyrights or design
(whether filed or not) with respect to the IOC IPR shall be assigned to the IOC free
of charge (i) effective not later than 31st December 2012 with respect to the Host
Country and (ii) effective from the outset with respect to all territories outside the
Host Country. The said assignments, in form and substance satisfactory to the
IOC, shall be executed upon the request of the IOC.
d) The City, the NOC and the OCOG shall ensure that all persons, either physical or
legal, involved in the creation of all such IOC IPR have declared that they have full
power, without any restriction whatsoever, to enter into a copyright and
intellectual property rights assignment and have signed such copyright and
intellectual property rights assignment, in form and substance satisfactory to the
IOC, before they start working on any projects. The City, the NOC and the OCOG
shall execute such further agreement(s) as the IOC may require at any time to
secure the full assignment of all copyright and other intellectual property as
aforesaid to the IOC.
e) Paragraphs (b) and (d) of Section 40 above shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the subject matter of this Section 42.
f) The City, the NOC and the OCOG shall ensure that all works developed for the
Games, by them or by third parties contracted by them, including all information,
documents and materials referred to in Section 27 of this Contract, as well as
those items referred to in Paragraph (a) of Section 42 of this Contract, shall be
copyrighted from the outset, free of any encumbrances, solely in the name of the
IOC. The OCOG shall ensure that appropriate documentation is executed with the
authors of all such works in order to ensure the foregoing and, if requested by
the IOC, shall enter into such further agreement(s) to this effect.
g) The City, the NOC and the OCOG shall provide to the IOC, free of charge, the
works referred to in Paragraph (f) of Section 42 above in electronic and editable format and/or other format(s) as may be requested by the IOC, so as to facilitate the actual use of such works by the IOC and by third parties authorized by the IOC. Such transfer shall be carried out, as directed by the IOC, within a period not exceeding 6 months after the completion of the Games.」


・London Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Act 2006 http://www.bailii.org/uk/legis/num_act/2006/ukpga_20060012_en_1.html
「SCHEDULE 3
Olympic Symbol Protection
Introduction
1The Olympic Symbol etc. (Protection) Act 1995 (c. 32)(挿入:http://www.bailii.org/uk/legis/num_act/1995/ukpga_19950032_en_1.html) shall be amended as follows.
Olympics association right: proprietor
2After section 1(2) (proprietor of Olympics association right) insert–
"(2A)An order under subsection (2) above–
(a)may appoint more than one person;
(b)may make different appointments for different purposes;
(c)may make provision for joint or concurrent exercise of rights;
(d)may apply (with or without modifications) or make provision similar to a provision of section 23 of the Trade Marks Act 1994 (c. 26) (co-ownership)."
Words similar to protected words
3(1)At the end of section 3(1)(b) (infringement: similar symbols and mottos) add "or a word so similar to a protected word as to be likely to create in the public mind an association with the Olympic Games or the Olympic movement".
(2)In the application of section 4(11) to (14) (infringement: protection for existing use) to the Olympics association right as it has effect by virtue of sub-paragraph (1) above, a reference to the commencement of the Act shall be treated as a reference to the commencement of that sub-paragraph.
Olympics association right: limitations
4For section 4(1) to (10) (infringement of Olympics association right: limitations) substitute–
"(1)A person does not infringe the Olympics association right (despite section 3) by the use of a controlled representation–
(a)in publishing or broadcasting a report of a sporting or other event forming part of the Olympic Games,
(b)in publishing or broadcasting information about the Olympic Games,
(c)as an incidental inclusion in a literary work, dramatic work, artistic work, sound recording, film or broadcast, within the meaning of Part I of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. 48) (copyright), or
(d)as an inclusion in an advertisement for a publication or broadcast of a kind described in paragraph (a) or (b).
(2)But the exceptions in subsection (1)(a) and (b) do not apply to advertising material which is published or broadcast at the same time as, or in connection with, a report or information.
(3)A person does not infringe the Olympics association right by using a controlled representation in a context which is not likely to suggest an association between a person, product or service and the Olympic Games or the Olympic movement; and for the purpose of this subsection–
(a)the concept of an association between a person, product or service and the Olympic Games or the Olympic movement includes, in particular–
(i)any kind of contractual relationship,
(ii)any kind of commercial relationship,
(iii)any kind of corporate or structural connection, and
(iv)the provision by a person of financial or other support for or in connection with the Olympic Games or the Olympic movement, but
(b)a person does not suggest an association with the Olympic Games or the Olympic movement only by making a statement which–
(i)accords with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, and
(ii)does not make promotional or other commercial use of a protected word by incorporating it in a context to which the Olympic Games and the Olympic movement are substantively irrelevant.
(4)The Secretary of State may by order specify what is to be or not to be treated for the purposes of subsection (3) as an association between a person, product or service and the Olympic Games or the Olympic movement; and an order under this subsection–
(a)may include incidental, consequential or transitional provision (which may include provision amending subsection (3)(a) or (b)),
(b)shall be made by statutory instrument, and
(c)may not be made unless a draft has been laid before and approved by resolution of each House of Parliament.
(5)A person does not infringe the Olympics association right by using a controlled representation in relation to goods if–
(a)they were put on the market in the European Economic Area by the proprietor or with his consent,
(b)the representation was used in relation to the goods when they were put on the market, and
(c)the proprietor does not oppose further dealings in the goods for legitimate reasons (including, in particular, that the condition of the goods has been changed or impaired after they were put on the market)."
5At the end of section 5 (Olympics association right: power to prescribe further limitations) add–
"(4)An order under this section shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament."」


・2013年9月 2020年東京オリンピック開催決定と知財法業界への新たな課題 (RC 足立 勝) http://rclip.sakura.ne.jp/column.html

・日本はナイロビ条約批准していなかったか.これを思い出せず悩んでいたんだ.(The Olympic Symbol etc. (Protection) Act 1995 (c. 32)はナイロビ条約より制定された,かとおもっていたら,イギリスも批准しとらんやんけ) http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%AA%E3%83%AA%E3%83%B3%E3%83%94%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%83%BB%E3%82%B7%E3%83%B3%E3%83%9C%E3%83%AB%E3%81%AE%E4%BF%9D%E8%AD%B7%E3%81%AB%E9%96%A2%E3%81%99%E3%82%8B%E3%83%8A%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AD%E3%83%93%E6%9D%A1%E7%B4%84
・わが国が未批准の国際条約一覧 http://www.ndl.go.jp/jp/data/publication/document/2009/200887.pdf
 http://dl.ndl.go.jp/view/download/digidepo_8196396_po_201203d.pdf?contentNo=1(2013.1版)
・2020年東京オリンピック、「ブランドと知的所有権」の問題は大丈夫か? http://www.newsweekjapan.jp/reizei/2013/09/2020-1.php


・Report of the 2020 Evaluation Commission http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Host_city_elections/2020_Evaluation_Commission_report.pdf
「RIGHTS PROTECTION
In Japan, the Copyright Law, the Trademark Law and the Unfair Competition Prevention Act provide strong protection against the unauthorized use of protected marks. Japan also has a culture of respect for intellectual property rights which reduces threats from the domestic marketplace.
Tokyo 2020 has advised that, under the current legal framework, an injunction against ambush marketing could be obtained within approximately two weeks. The Bid Committee has committed to further examine legislation to determine whether it would be necessary to implement special measures to enable effective, immediate action in response to ambush marketing.
Street vending in Japan is strictly controlled. A network of over 1,200 “Kobans” (neighbourhood police offices) exists in Tokyo to provide further protection against unauthorized street vending.」

・IOC、JOC等によるオリンピック関連商標の主な出願・登録状況について http://www.jpo.go.jp/toiawase/faq/ioc_joc_shohyo.htm


・スポーツと知的財産
http://www.jpaa.or.jp/activity/publication/patent/patent-library/patent-lib/201404/jpaapatent201404_004-015.pdf


・ワールドカップの便乗フェアはNG? 話題のアンブッシュ・マーケティングとは
http://audiobooktimes.febe.jp/post/88932249785/ng
素敵




201608追記
リオオリンピック中

・オリンピック応援禁止令?--ツイート禁止通知と「アンブッシュ」規制法の足音
http://japan.cnet.com/news/business/35087137/
「アスリート達が怒っている。いや、ドーピング以外で。
 何かといえば、米国オリンピック委員会(USOC)の通達をめぐる対立の報道だ。「#RIO2016」でのツイートなど、いよいよ開幕のリオ五輪をめぐる企業のソーシャルメディア投稿を禁止したと報じられた。」
「この「アンブッシュ・マーケティング」だが、結構厳しくて、日本でも東京招致が決まってから、一気に広まった。JOC(日本オリンピック委員会)が便乗商法の疑いリストを各所に通知したのだ。元はといえば本体のIOCの要請なのだが、それに基づいて広告審査機構(JARO)が公表したNGワード集はなかなか刺激的だ。」
「だが、いずれも、登録商標やエンブレムを「商標として使う」行為が対象である。つまり、商品名や店名としての使用が典型例だ。「記述的使用」と言って、単にオリンピックという競技を指し示すために、いわば主語ではなく目的語としてこれらの言葉を使うのは、基本的に違法ではない。この点で、JOCが挙げた懸念例は、明らかに広すぎる。こうした言葉をよほど特殊な状況で使うと違法になり得るという程度であって、通常のオリンピック応援レベルで違法になるとは考えにくい。」
ただし現行法では、である。実はロンドンでもリオでも、IOCの要請で、時限立法でアンブッシュ・マーケティング規制法を作っている。そこでは、通常の知的財産権よりも強硬なオリンピックへの言及の規制が行われ得る。日本でも、間違いなくこの種の時限立法は政治日程に上ってくるだろう。だが、いくら特別立法といっても、その範囲はある程度限定されたものになるはずだし、実際に過剰な言葉狩りは避けるべきだ。それは肝心のイベントの盛り上がりを削ぎ、オリンピックの経済波及効果を押し下げかねない。」